articles divers

L’authentification sans mot de passe sur le Web, c'est pour bientôt - - 20180826

L'API WebAuthn pourrait rapidement s'imposer

Le courrier électronique comme moyen d'authentification ?

  • Authentification par mail en se basant sur les headers DKIM (Domain Keys Identified Mail).
  • Cf Swoop.

Utiliser les technologies des cryptomonnaies

Utiliser les applis qui gèrent les comptes de cryptomonnaies pour authentifier les utilisateurs.

Cookies vs Tokens

Cookies vs Tokens: The Definitive Guide - - 20160531

diff oAuth / OpenID / SAML

Authentication and Authorization: OpenID vs OAuth2 vs SAML

OAuth2 OpenId SAML
Token (or assertion) format JSON or SAML2 JSON XML
Authorization? Yes No Yes
Authentication? Pseudo-authentification Yes Yes
Year created 2005 2006 2001
Current version OAuth2 OpenID Connect SAML 2.0
Transport HTTP HTTP GET and POST HTTP Redirect, SOAP, ...
Best suited for API authorization SSO for consumer apps SSO for enterprise (bad on mobile)

See article above for security risks.

OAuth vs. SAML vs. OpenID Connect

So when should you use SAML, and when should you use OpenID Connect?

  • If you have a mobile application, use OpenID Connect–no question. See this blog on the use of AppAuth.
  • If you have an application that already supports SAML–use SAML!
  • If you are writing a new application, use OpenID Connect–skate to where the puck is going!
  • If you need to protect API’s, or you need to create an API Gateway… that’s a topic for another blog. Short answer: use OAuth2 or the User Managed Access ("UMA") protocol!


Is OAuth deprecated ?

Am I right in thinking OAuth 1.0 has been deprecated in favour of OAuth 2.0? :

IETF has published a new version of OAuth 2 obsoleting OAuth 1.x and it strongly recommends the new Auth providers switch to OAuth2.

There is a revision to OAuth 1.0a which fixes many of the security flaws found in 1.0 and is widely considered to be the most secure OAuth version yet.


OAuth 2.0 website

User Authentication with OAuth 2.0

The OAuth 2.0 specification defines a delegation protocol that is useful for conveying authorization decisions across a network of web-enabled applications and APIs. OAuth is used in a wide variety of applications, including providing mechanisms for user authentication. This has led many developers and API providers to incorrectly conclude that OAuth is itself an authentication protocol and to mistakenly use it as such. Let's say that again, to be clear:

OAuth 2.0 is not an authentication protocol.

Much of the confusion comes from the fact that OAuth is used inside of authentication protocols, and developers will see the OAuth components and interact with the OAuth flow and assume that by simply using OAuth, they can accomplish user authentication. This turns out to be not only untrue, but also dangerous for service providers, developers, and end users.

Analyse RFC 6749 par Stéphane Bortzmeyer

OpenID vise à authentifier un utilisateur humain, OAuth à authentifier la requête d'un programme, agissant pour le compte d'un humain.

OAuth 2 Simplified :

This post describes OAuth 2.0 in a simplified format to help developers and service providers implement the protocol.

The OAuth 2 spec can be a bit confusing to read, so I've written this post to help describe the terminology in a simplified format. The core spec leaves many decisions up to the implementer, often based on security tradeoffs of the implementation. Instead of describing all possible decisions that need to be made to successfully implement OAuth 2, this post makes decisions that are appropriate for most implementations.



RFC6749 - The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework

The OAuth 2.0 authorization framework enables a third-party application to obtain limited access to an HTTP service, either on behalf of a resource owner by orchestrating an approval interaction between the resource owner and the HTTP service, or by allowing the third-party application to obtain access on its own behalf. This specification replaces and obsoletes the OAuth 1.0 protocol described in RFC 5849.

RFC6750 - The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework: Bearer Token Usage

This specification describes how to use bearer tokens in HTTP requests to access OAuth 2.0 protected resources. Any party in possession of a bearer token (a "bearer") can use it to get access to the associated resources (without demonstrating possession of a cryptographic key). To prevent misuse, bearer tokens need to be protected from disclosure in storage and in transport.

RFC6819 - OAuth 2.0 Threat Model and Security Considerations

This document gives additional security considerations for OAuth, beyond those in the OAuth 2.0 specification, based on a comprehensive threat model for the OAuth 2.0 protocol.


RFC 7521 - Assertion Framework for OAuth 2.0 Client Authentication and Authorization Grants

This specification provides a framework for the use of assertions with OAuth 2.0 in the form of a new client authentication mechanism and a new authorization grant type. Mechanisms are specified for transporting assertions during interactions with a token endpoint; general processing rules are also specified.

The intent of this specification is to provide a common framework for OAuth 2.0 to interwork with other identity systems using assertions and to provide alternative client authentication mechanisms.

Note that this specification only defines abstract message flows and processing rules. In order to be implementable, companion specifications are necessary to provide the corresponding concrete instantiations.

RFC7591 - OAuth 2.0 Dynamic Client Registration Protocol

This specification defines mechanisms for dynamically registering OAuth 2.0 clients with authorization servers. Registration requests send a set of desired client metadata values to the authorization server. The resulting registration responses return a client identifier to use at the authorization server and the client metadata values registered for the client. The client can then use this registration information to communicate with the authorization server using the OAuth 2.0 protocol. This specification also defines a set of common client metadata fields and values for clients to use during registration.

RFC7592 - OAuth 2.0 Dynamic Client Registration Management Protocol

This specification defines methods for management of OAuth 2.0 dynamic client registrations for use cases in which the properties of a registered client may need to be changed during the lifetime of the client. Not all authorization servers supporting dynamic client registration will support these management methods.

RFC7662 - OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection

This specification defines a method for a protected resource to query an OAuth 2.0 authorization server to determine the active state of an OAuth 2.0 token and to determine meta-information about this token. OAuth 2.0 deployments can use this method to convey information about the authorization context of the token from the authorization server to the protected resource.

RFC7797 - JSON Web Signature (JWS) Unencoded Payload Option

JSON Web Signature (JWS) represents the payload of a JWS as a base64url-encoded value and uses this value in the JWS Signature computation. While this enables arbitrary payloads to be integrity protected, some have described use cases in which the base64url encoding is unnecessary and/or an impediment to adoption, especially when the payload is large and/or detached. This specification defines a means of accommodating these use cases by defining an option to change the JWS Signing Input computation to not base64url- encode the payload. This option is intended to broaden the set of use cases for which the use of JWS is a good fit.

This specification updates RFC 7519 by stating that JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) MUST NOT use the unencoded payload option defined by this specification.

RFC7523 - JSON Web Token (JWT) Profile for OAuth 2.0 Client Authentication and Authorization Grants

This specification defines the use of a JSON Web Token (JWT) Bearer Token as a means for requesting an OAuth 2.0 access token as well as for client authentication.

RFC7800 - Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for JSON Web Tokens (JWTs)

This specification describes how to declare in a JSON Web Token (JWT) that the presenter of the JWT possesses a particular proof-of- possession key and how the recipient can cryptographically confirm proof of possession of the key by the presenter. Being able to prove possession of a key is also sometimes described as the presenter being a holder-of-key.

RFC7009 - OAuth 2.0 Token Revocation

This document proposes an additional endpoint for OAuth authorization servers, which allows clients to notify the authorization server that a previously obtained refresh or access token is no longer needed. This allows the authorization server to clean up security credentials. A revocation request will invalidate the actual token and, if applicable, other tokens based on the same authorization grant.

RFC7522 - Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0 Profile for OAuth 2.0 Client Authentication and Authorization Grants

This specification defines the use of a Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0 Bearer Assertion as a means for requesting an OAuth 2.0 access token as well as for client authentication.

RFC7636 - Proof Key for Code Exchange by OAuth Public Clients

OAuth 2.0 public clients utilizing the Authorization Code Grant are susceptible to the authorization code interception attack. This specification describes the attack as well as a technique to mitigate against the threat through the use of Proof Key for Code Exchange (PKCE, pronounced "pixy").

RFC6755 - An IETF URN Sub-Namespace for OAuth

This document establishes an IETF URN Sub-namespace for use with OAuth-related specifications.


Acces Token & Refresh Token

Why Does OAuth v2 Have Both Access and Refresh Tokens? :

Authorization servers


100% Stateless avec JWT (JSON Web Token) (Hubert SABLONNIÈRE) : Devoxx2016


  • historique de la gestion des sessions web via cookie
  • rappel : diff cookie et JWT fausse, c'est diff entre sessionId et JWT car cookie est un mode de transport. JWT est transporté via un cookie
  • diff entre sessionId et token JWT
    • sessionId = token par référence (contient la référence à la session, la session étant stockée dans le backend)
    • JWT = token par valeur (contient la valeur de la session : H34D3R.P4YLO4D.S1GN47UR3)

JWT Un token JWT est encodé en Base64url (comme Base64 mais safe pour les urls) 3 parties (header, payload et signature) encodées chacune en Base64url, les parties sont séparées par un .. Une fois décodé, les parties header et payload du token sont au format json.

Les propriétés de la partie payload sont nommées des claims (codifiés par RFC7519).


  • stocké côté client donc scalable
  • multilangage
  • microservices
  • SSO gratuit

Usage avec d'autres technos

  • OAuth2 : Si le provider OAuth2 fournit des refresh token et access token JWT alors on est complètement stateless
  • OpenID Connect : le token ID est de base un JWT


  • Révocation de tokens (blacklist via le claim jti, crée un SPOF (Single Point Of Failure))
  • transporté via cookies donc vulnérables aux attaques XSS et CSRF

Autres usages des JWT

  • stockage données session (panier, formulaire multipart, ...)
  • mail de confirmation en passant le token dans l'url du mail de confirmation (évite le stockage BDD)

Comment gérer les permissions via le JWT si celui-ci est HTTPonly (bonne pratique de sécu) ? Nécessite un webservice qui lit le token et renvoie en clair les permissions.


JSON Web Token (JWT)


articles securing SPA


Sécuriser ses applications back et front facilement avec Keycloak (Sebastien Blanc) : Devoxx2016

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